Introduction    
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Epilogue Glossary


 


 

I. GLOSSARY

II. ETHNO-GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX


 

I. GLOSSARY

A

  • Achacha - a ploughing-implement

  • Agara, agarani - აგარა, a privately-owned plot of land.

  • Amid (Arabic) - scribe, head of a chancellory

  • Amirakhori - assistant of the "amirspasalari".

  • Amirejibi - ამირეჯიბი, assistant of the "mandaturt-ukhutsesi".

  • Amirspasalari - ამირსპასალარი, chief of the war-department.

  • Atabagi (Turkic) - ათაბაგი, tutor to the prince, adviser to the king.

  • Aznauri - აზნაური, feudal lord in 5th - 12th-century Georgia. 2. Lower order of the feudal nobility in the 12th - 18th centuries.

B

  • Ben, ukhutsesi - elder, hier, town-elder, department-head.

C

  • Caesar - Byzantium court-title.

D

  • Darbazi - დარბაზი, 1. Palace, hall; 2. consultative body at the royal court.

  • Didebuli - დიდებული, noble, higher order of feudal aristocracy in Georgia in the 11th-12th centuries.

  • Dinari - დინარი, silver-coin.

  • Domestik - military rank in Byzantium.

  • Dzgveni - ძღვენი, offering, present.

E

  • Emir (amira, Arabic) - ემირი, governor of a town or region. Eri- 1. troops; 2. freedmen-members of a community.

  • Erismtavari - ერისმთავარი, governor of a region, e. g.

  • Erismtavari of Kartli (ruler of Kartli).

  • Erismtavarship - Kartli ruled by an "erismtavari".

  • Eristavi - ერისთავი, governor of a region, army-commander.

  • Eristavt-eristavi - governor of a large region, to whom "eristavis" may be subordinated.

G

  • Gala - duty paid in kind (grain) by peasants.

  • Garetmosuli - a peasant who bonds himself to a feudal lord by free will (literally,"one who comes from without").

  • Glekhi - გლეხი, peasant.

  • Gutani - გუთანი, plough.

I

  • Ikta - conditional feudal possession of land in Muslim countries.

K

  • Karabadini - კარაბადინი, medical book.

  • Kma - ყმა, 1. vassal; 2. serf.

  • Koka - კოკა, liquid - measure (wine).

  • Kharaja (Arabic) -Arab land-tax.

  • Khevi - ხევი, I. ravine; 2. administrative unit.

  • Khevisberi - ხევისბერი, ruler of a khevi (secular and ecclesiastical head among mountain-tribes of Eastern Georgia).

  • Khorepiskopos (Greek) - title of rulers of Kakheti in the 8th-9th centuries.

  • Kulukhi - quitrent on wine.

  • Kurapalati - კურაპალატი, Byzantine court-title.

L

  • Litra - liquid-measure.

M

  • Magister - Byzantine court-title.

  • Mampali - lord.

  • Mandaturi - overseer, policeman.

  • Mandaturtukhutsesi - chief overseer, head of the department of the interior and communication.

  • Mdabiori - member of the lower strata of the population (literally, inhabitant of a "daba", a village).

  • Meabjretukhutsesi - მეაბჯრეთუხუცესი, custodian of an arms-repository.

  • Mechurchletukhutsesi - მეჭურჭლეთუხუცესი, chief treasurer, head of the finance-department.

  • Mokme - მოყმე, knight.

  • Molashkre - მოლაშქრე, warrior.

  • Mona-spa - royal guard.

  • Mouravi - მოურავი, manager.

  • Msakhuri - მსახური, servant.

  • Msakhurtukhutsesi - მსახურთუხუცესი, "major domo" at court, manager of the court-economy.

  • Msoplio - მსოფლიო, member of the lower strata of the population (literally, inhabitant of a "sopeli", a village).

  • Muhtassibi (Arabic) - town-official.

  • Mtsignobartukhutsesi - მწიგნობართუხუცესი, 1. Head of the royal chancellory, minister of education (literally, chief "mtsignobari" - scribe); 2. at the beginning of the 12th century he became a "vaziri" of the king.

N

  • Naskidi - ნასყიდი, purchased, hire 1. purchased peasant, 2. purchased land.

  • Nebieri - ნებიერი, peasant who voluntarily goes into bondage.

  • Novelissimus – Byzantine court-title.

P

  • Panipersebastos – Byzantine court-title.

  • Parakimenon - chamberlain.

  • Pudze - ფუძე, peasant-holding.

R

  • Reis (Arabic) - mayor.

S

  • Saajo kari - royal court of law.

  • Sachurchle - საჭურჭლე, treasury.

  • Samaspindzlo - სამასპინძლო, tax in kind.

  • Samushao - სამუშაო, corvee.

  • Sasepo - 1. Crown-property; 2. tax to the Crown.

  • Sebastos - Byzantine court-title.

  • Spasalari (Persian) - სპასალარი, military leader.

  • Spaspeti (Persian) - სპასპეტი, military leader.

  • Sukhra (Arabic) - quitrent.

  • Savaziro - სავაზირო, council of "vaziris".

  • Shetsiruli - შეწირული, peasants donated to monasteries.

  • Shihna (Arabic) - viceroy.

  • Shurta (Arabic) - police-official.

T

  • Tavadi - თავადი, head of a feudal clan.

  • Tsikhistavi - ციხისთავი, commander of a fortress-garrison and ruler of a region.

  • Tsikhovani - ციხოვანი, nobleman possessing a fortress.

U

  • Uremi - ურემი, bullock-cart.

V

  • Vachartukhutsesi - ვაჭართუხუცესი, merchant-elder.

  • Vaziri - ვაზირი, ვეზირი, 1. assistant, counsellor; 2. Department-head.

Z

  • Zardakhana – repository of crown-treasures.

 

 




II. ETHNO-GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX

 


A

  • Abkhasia - აფხაზეთი, 1. in the narrow sense, part of Western Georgia; 2. in the broad sense, the whole of Western Georgia; 3. Georgia.

  • Abkhasian - აფხაზური, 1. inhabitant of Abkhazia; 2. inhabitant of Western Georgia.

  • Agarani - fortress in "Kvemo" Kartli.

  • Akhalkalaki - ახალქალაქი, town and fortress in Javakheti.

  • Akhaltsikhe - ახალციხე, town and fortress in Samtskhe.

  • Alaverdi - ალავერდი, village and episcopal cathedral in Kakheti.

  • Alazani - ალაზანი, river in Eastern Georgia, tributary of the Kura.

  • Aleppo - town in Syria.

  • Ali - ალი, town in "Shida" Kartli.

  • Amberd - town in Armenia.

  • Anakopiya - ანაკოფია, town and fortress on the Black Sea.

  • Ani - ანი, town in Armenia, capital of the kingdom of the same name.

  • Ancha - ანჩა, village and episcopal cathedral in Shavsheti.

  • Antioch - town in ancient Syria; feudal principality founded by Crusaders.

  • Apahunik - region in historical Great Armenia.

  • Aragatsi - mountain in Armenia.

  • Aragvi - არაგვი, river in Eastern Georgia, eastern tributary of the Mtkvari.

  • Araks - largest tributary of the Kura, flows across Turkey, Armenia and Azerbaijan.

  • Archesh - town in historical Armenia. Ardebil - town in Iran.

  • Argveti - არგვეთი, historic-geographical region in Western Georgia.

  • Artaani - არტაანი, region and town in historical south-western Georgia.

  • Artanuji (Ardagan) - არტანუჯი, town in K.larjeti.

  • Ashorniya - fortress in Armenia.

  • Ateni - ათენი, fortress and town in "Shida" Kartli.

  • Athoni - ათონი, eastern salient of the Chalcedon peninsula in the Aegean.

  • Atropatena - historical region in Southern Azerbaijan.

B

  • Bagratids of Armenia - royal family.

  • Bagrationi of Georgia - royal family.

  • Bana - ბანა, town in Tao.

  • Baraleti - town in South-western Georgia.

  • Bardav, Partav - town in Azerbaijan.

  • Basiani - historic-geographical region in South-western Georgia (now in Turkey).

  • Bedia - ბერდია, village and episcopal cathedral in Western Georgia.

  • Berkri - town in historical Armenia.

  • Bertubani - ბერთუბანი, monastery in East Georgia.

  • Betaniya - ბეთანია, village and monastery near Tbilisi.

  • Bijnis - town in Armenia.

  • Birtvisi - ბირთვისი, fortress south of Tbilisi.

  • Bodoji - residence of the kings of Kakheti, near Tianeti.

C

  • Chaneti - ჭანეთი, historic-geographical province in South-western Georgia (now in Turkey).

  • Chartaly - ჭართალი, community of highland Georgians in the Aragvi-gorge. Chechens - a people inhabiting the Northern Caucasus.

  • Chkondidi - ჭყონდიდი, village and episcopal cathedra! in Western Georgia. Chormairi - region along the upper reaches of the Araks.

D

  • Daghestani - დაღესატანი, land in the eastern part of the Northern Caucasus.

  • Daryal Gorge, Daryal Gate, Aragva Gate, Alan or Ossetian Gate-pass across the Caucasian Mountains in the central part of Caucasus.

  • Derbend - დერბენდი, coastal town, pass between the sea and the Caucasian Mountains.

  • Didgori - დიდგორი, locality near Manglisi in "Kvemo" Kartli.

  • Dido - tribe in the central highland-part of Eastern Georgia.

  • Dmanisi - დმანისი, town in "Kvemo" Kartli.

  • Durdzuki - ancestors of the Veinakh , inhabitants of the northern foothills of the Caucasus.

  • Dvaly - დვალი, name of a tribe inhabiting, the central highland-part of Eastern Georgia.

  • Dvin - town in Armenia.

  • Dzaghlis-khevi - ძაღლის-ხევი, locality in South-western Georgia.

  • Dzameli - Georgian feudal family.

  • Dzerna - fortress in "Kvemo" Kartli.

  • Dzorageti - region in "Kvemo" Kartli (now in Armenia).

E

  • Edessa - town in Northern Mesopotamia.

  • Edessa duchy - feudal state founded by Crusaders.

  • Egrisi - ეგრისი, historic-geographical province, a Georgian feudal state embracing the whole of west Georgia.

  • Ertso - ერწო, historic-geographical province in the highland-part of Eastern Georgia.

  • Ertsukhi - ერწუხი, locality in Kakheti.

  • Erza sultanate - state in the territory of modern Turkey.

  • Erzerum (Arsrum) emirate - state in the territory of modern Turkey

F

  • Fatimids - dynasty of caliphs.

G

  • Gagi - fortress in "Kvemo" Kartli.

  • Gandza, Ganja, Kirovobad - განძა, განჯა, კიროვაბადი, town in Azerbaijan, in historical Ran.

  • Garkloba - fortress in Shavsheti.

  • Ghvivis-khevi – locality in "Kvemo" Kartli.

  • Geguti - გეგუთი, royal palace near Kutaisi in Western Georgia.

  • Gelakuni - town in Azerbaijan. Gelati - village, episcopal cathedral and monastery near Kutaisi in Western Georgia.

  • Gishi - გიში, fortress in Hereti.

  • Gori - გორი, town in "Shida" Kartli.

  • Grua - fortress in a ravine of the Ksani River in "Shida" Kartli.

  • Gveleti - გველეთი, village in Khevi.

H

  • Harki - region in historical Great Armenia.

  • Hereti - ჰერეთი, historic-geographical province in Eastern Georgia.

  • Hereti principality - Eastern Georgian feudal state. Hyune Vank-Monastery in Tashiri.

I

  • Iberia, Iveria - იბერია, ივერია, ancient name of Eastern Georgia (Kartli).

  • Ikalto - იყალთო, village and monastery in Kakheti.

  • Ikorta - იკორთა, village and monastery in "Shi-da" Kartli.

  • Ildegizids - feudal dynasty in Azerbaijan, Northern Iran.

  • Ingushi - ინგუში, a people inhabiting the central part of Ingusheti in the Northern Caucasus.

  • Isani- ისანი, district in Tbilisi.

  • Ishkhani – იშხანი, town and church in Tao.

J

  • Javakheti - ჯავახეთი, historic-geographical province in South-western Georgia.

  • Jiketi - ჯიქეთი, region along the Black Sea coast, north of Abkhazia.

K

  • Kabala - town in Shirvan.

  • Kaen - town in Armenia.

  • Kakheti - კახეთი, historic-geographical province in the eastern part of Eastern Georgia.

  • Kakheti principality, kingdom - Eastern Georgian feudal state.

  • Kambechan, Kiziki - region in Kakheti.

  • Kangari - region in Southern Georgia.

  • Kars - town in historical Armenia {now in Turkey).

  • Kartli - ქართლი, in the broad sense, the whole of Georgia; in the narrow sense, Western Georgia; and in a still narrower sense Upper (Zemo,ზემო), Inner (Shida, შიდა) and Lower (Kvemo, ქვემო) Kartli taken together; in the narrowest sense. Inner ("Shida") Kartli.

  • Kartli Zemo (Upper) - South-western Georgia.

  • Kartli Kvemo (Lower) - historic-geographical province on the west bank of the Mtkvari in Eastern Georgia.

  • Kartli Shida (Inner) - historic-geographical province in Eastern Georgia, mainly the left bank of the Mtkvari from the Aragvi to the Borjomi Gorge.

  • Kazvin - town in Iran.

  • Khakhuli - ხახული, monastery in Tao.

  • Khaldoi Arichi - ravine of the Western Euphrates.

  • Khazars - ხაზარები, Turkic-speaking people.

  • Khevi - historco-geographical region in the highland-part of Eastern Georgia.

  • Khevsureti - ხევსურეთი, mountainous region in Eastern Georgia.

  • Khlat - town in historical Southern Armenia.

  • Khlat emirate - state in historical Armenia.

  • Khorasan - historical region in Northeastern Iran

  • Khornabuji - town in Kakheti.

  • Khunani - town in South-eastern Georgia.

  • Khupati - fortress on the Black Sea coast (in Southern Georgia).

  • Klarjeti - კლარჯეთი, historic-geographical province in South-western Georgia.

  • Kldekari - კლდეკარი, fortress in the "eristavship" of Trialeti.

  • Kojori - კოჯორი, village and fortress near Tbilisi.

  • Kola - historic-geographical province in South-western Georgia at the sources of the Kura River (now in Turkey).

  • Korinteli - კორინთელი, Georgian Feudal family.

  • Ksani - ქსანი, river in Kartli, eastern tributary of the Mtkvari.

  • Kurds - ქურთები, indigenous population of the mountainous regions in Eastern and South-eastern Asia Minor.

  • Kutaisi - ქუთაისი, large town in Western Georgia.

  • Kveli - fortress in Javakheti.

  • Kvirikidi - junior branch of the Armenian Bagratids.

L

  • Lesghins – inhabitants of Daghestan (South Russia).

  • Likhi,Suram Range-spurs of the Caucasian Mountains running between Eastern and Western Georgia.

  • Lore - town and fortress in "Kvemo" Kartli.

N

  • Nacharmagevi- ნაჭარმაგევი, locality, royal residence in "Shida" Kartli.

  • Nichbisi - ნიჩბისი, village and ravine in "Shida" Kartli.

  • Nikopsiya - ნიკოფსია, near modern Tuapse.

  • Nikortsminda - ნიკორწმინდა, village and cathedral in Racha (Western Georgia).

O

  • Odzrkhe - town and fortress in Samtske (South-Western Georgia).

  • Odishi - ოდიში, historic-geographical region in Western Georgia.

  • Oltisi - town in Tao.

  • Orbeti - ორბეთი, fortress in south of Tbilisi. Ossetians - inhabitants of Ossetia. Oshki - church in Tao.

M

  • Manaskert - town in Armenia.

  • Manglisi - მანგლისი, village, region and Episcopal cathedral in "Kvemo" Kartli.

  • Mankaberd - fortress in Northern Armenia..

  • Maragha - town in Iran.

  • Marand - town in Iran.

  • Mardaliya - locality in historical Great Armenia.

  • Meskheti – მესხეთი, historical name of Southwestern Georgia ("zemo" Kartli).

  • Miane - town in Iran.

  • Moghrisi – village in "Shida" Kartli.

  • Mosul - town in Iran.

  • Mokheve – მოხევე, community of highland Georgians in Eastern Georgia.

  • Mtkvari – მტკვარი, largest river in Georgia, also called as Kura.

  • Mtskheta - მცხეთა, town in Eastern Georgia (an ancient capital of Georgia)

  • Mukhrani - მუხრანი, Mtskheta district , fortress in "Shida" Kartli.

P

  • Palakatsio – region in South-western Georgia.

  • Panaskerti - ფანასკერტი, fortress in Tao.

  • Partskhisi - ფარცხისი, fortress in south of Tbilisi.

  • Pavneli - Georgian feudal family.

  • Pkhovi - ფხოვი, historic-geographical region in Eastern Georgia.

  • Pkhovis - inhabitants of Pkhovi.

  • Pkhveneli – Georgian feudal family.

R

  • Racha - რაჭა, historic-geographical province in the highland-part of Western Georgia.

  • Rani, Arani - Seljuk Turkish state on the territory of Modern Azerbaijan.

  • Rkoni - რკონი, village and monastery in "Shida" Kartli.

  • Rum sultanate - Koni sultanate, in Asia Minor.

  • Rustavi - რუსთავი, town in Eastern Georgia, south of Tbilisi, on the bank of the Mtkvari.

S

  • Sakartvelo - საქართველო, Georgia.

  • Samgori - სამგორი, locality east of Tbilisi.

  • Samshvilde - სამშვილდე, town and fortress in "Kvemo" Kartli.

  • Samtskhe - სამცხე, historic-geographical province in South-western Georgia.

  • Shamkori, Shamkor - შამქორი, town in Northern Azerbaijan.

  • Shavsheti - შავშეთი, historic-geographical province in South-western Georgia (now in Turkey).

  • Shemakha - town in Northern Azerbaijan.

  • Shiomghvime – შიომღვიმე, monastery in Kartli, near Mtskheta.

  • Shirak - region in Northern Armenia.

  • Shirvan - state, a historical region in Northern Azerbaijan.

  • Skoreti – locality in "Kvemo" Kartli.

  • Speri (Ispir) - historic-geographical province in South-western Georgia (now in Turkey).

  • Surami - სურამი, town in "Shida" Kartli.

  • Svaneti - სვანეთი, historic-geographical province in the highland-part of Western Georgia.

  • Sveri – fortress in Western Georgia.

T

  • Takveri - თაყვერი, historic-geographical region in the higland-part of Western Georgia.

  • Tao - ტაო, historic-geographical province in South-western Georgia (now in Turkey).

  • Taoskari - ტაოსკარი, locality in Tao.

  • Tashiri - historic-geographical region in "kvemo" Kartli.

  • Tashis Kari - locality on the boundary of "Shida" and "Zemo" Kartli at the entrance to the Borjomi Gorge.

  • Tajiki – ტაჯიკი, Arabs (inhebitens of Tadjikistan – Besiki)

  • Tbeli - თბელი Georgian feudal family.

  • Tbeti - ტბეთი, 1. village in "Shida" Kartli; 2. village and cathedral in Shavsheti.

  • Tbilisi - თბილისი, capital of Georgia.

  • Tbilisi-emirate - part of Eastern Georgia ruled by the Arab emir.

  • Telavi - თელავი, town in Kakheti.

  • Tergi - თერგი, river in the Caucasus.

  • Terunakan - fortress in Northern Armenia.

  • Tianeti - თიანეთი, historic-geographical region in the mountainous part of Kakheti.

  • Tighva - თიღვა, village in "Shida" Kartli.

  • Tiriponi - valley in Kartli.

  • Tmogvi - თმოგვი, town in Javakheti.

  • Tori - თორი, historic-geographical region in Kartli.

  • Tortomi - historic-geographical region, lake, river and fortress in Southwestern Georgia (now in Turkey).

  • Trapezund -town on the southern shore of the Black Sea.

  • Trialeti - თრიალეთი, historic-geographical region in Kartli, south of Tbilisi.

  • Tserpti - fortress in Shavsheti.

  • Tsirkoli – fortress in "Shida" Kartli.

  • Tskhumi, Sukhumi - ცხუმი, სოხუმი, town on the Black Sea coast.

  • Tusheti - თუშეთი, mountainous region in Eastern Georgia.

U

  • Ujarma - უჯარმა, town in Kakheti.

  • Ukhtik - see Oltisi - town in Tao.

  • Uplis Tsikhe - უფლისციხე, town and fortress in "Shida" Kartli.

  • Urbnisi - ურბნისი, village and episcopal cathedral in "Shida" Kartli.

V

  • Vanand of Kars - kingdom of the Armenian Bagratuni.

  • Vardzia - ვარძია, Monastery carved out of rock in Javakheti.

  • Vaspurakan - region, kingdom in mediaeval Armenia.

  • Vejini - fortress in Historical Hereti.

  • Veinakhi - inhabitants of the northern foothills of the Caucasus.

Z

  • Zedazeni - ზედაზენი, fortress and monastery near Mtskheta.

  • Zenjani - town in Iran.

  • Zhinvani - ჟინვანი, ჟინვალი, present-day Zhinvali, town in the Aragvi Gorge (Dusheti district - Besiki).

  • Zovreti - town in Kartli.

     CONTINUE ...


 

 

 

The book of Mariam Lordkiphanidze - "Georgia in the XI-XII centuries"
Published in 1967 by Ganatleba Publishers, Georgia. Editor George B. Hewitt
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